Material properties
E_{mod} | Modulus of elasticity in tension or compression (Young's modulus) | N/mm^{2} |
Poisson | Poisson's ratio (ν) is a measure of the Poisson effect, the deformation (expansion or contraction) of a material in directions perpendicular to the specific direction of loading | Unitless |
G | Shear modulus or modulus of rigidity as G = E_{mod} / (2 · (1+Poisson)) | N/mm^{2} |
Rho | Density or the volumetric mass density or specific mass of material (ρ) | kN/m^{3} |
LinExp | Coefficient of linear thermal expansion | C°m |
Section properties
General properties |
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Area | Cross-sectional area (A) of mono-material cross section | mm^{2} |
n · Area | Cross-sectional area (n · A) of multi-material cross section | mm^{2} |
l_{yz} | Product of inertia. Product of inertia is a feature of a cross section that describes an imbalance relative to a defined set of coordinate axes. Product of inertia is equal to zero for the axis symmetrical cross section | mm^{4} |
Q_{y}, Q_{z}, |
Maximal first moment of area with respect to the global and principal axis of the cross section. Calculation of the Additional-advanced property may be restricted by technical module | mm^{3} |
p | External perimeter of a cross section | mm |
p_{int} | Inner perimeter of a cross section, i.e. perimeter of the holes of the hollow core cross section | mm |
g | Weight per length unit of the cross section bar | N/mm |
EA | Axial stiffness as the ratio of the axial load to axial deflection | N |
Y_{cg}, Z_{cg}, |
Coordinate of the axis system origin point is placed in the center of gravity of the cross section. Coordinate is calculated from the left bottom corner of the cross section | mm |
Y+, Y-, Z+, Z-, |
Core distances from the neutral axis system origin point defined in the global (Y-Z) or principal (U-V) axis system to the most top (-), bottom (+), left (-) or right (+) corner of the cross-section core. Axial loading is placed on the section core, doesn’t affect appearance of the bending actions | mm |
Flexural (bending) properties |
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Y_{ac}, Z_{ac}, |
Coordinate of the neutral axis system origin point. Coordinate is calculated from the left bottom corner of the cross section | mm |
I_{y}, I_{z}, |
Second moment of area with respect to the global and principal axis of the cross section | mm^{4} |
r_{yy}, r_{zz}, r_{uu}, r_{vv} |
Radius of gyration with respect to the global and principal axis of the cross section. Radius of gyration is valuable in calculating buckling load of a beam/column under compression | mm |
e_{y}+, e_{y}-, e_{z}+, e_{z}-, |
Distances from the neutral axis system origin point in the global (Y-Z) or principal (U-V) axis system to the most top (-), bottom(+), left(-) or right (+) corner of the cross section | mm |
W_{y}+, W_{y}-, |
Elastic section modulus with respect to neutral axis in the global (Y-Z) or principal (U-V) axis system for the most top (-), bottom(+), left(-) or right (+) corner of the cross section | mm^{3} |
EI_{yy}, EI_{zz}, EI_{uu}, EI_{vv} |
Bending stiffness as the resistance of a member against bending deformation with respect to the global and principal axis of the cross section | N·mm^{2} |
Alpha | Rotation angle of the principal axis system | deg |
Y_{cg}, Z_{cg}, U_{cg}, V_{cg} |
Coordinate of the axis system origin point is placed in the center of gravity of the cross section. Coordinate is calculated from the left bottom corner of the cross section | mm |
QQ_{y}, QQ_{z}, QQ_{u},QQ_{v} |
Value of |
mm |
Plastic properties |
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Y_{pl}, Z_{pl}, U_{pl}, V_{pl} |
Distance to plastic neutral axis with respect to centroid based global (Y-Z) or principal (U-V) neutral axis | mm |
W_{y,pl}, W_{z,pl}, W_{u,pl}, W_{v,pl} |
Plastic section modulus | mm^{3} |
Shear properties |
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A_{vy}, A_{vz} | Shear area with respect to the global axis of the cross section. Shear area is represented for the mono-material cross section only. Calculation of the Additional-advanced property may be restricted by technical module | mm^{2} |
y_{s}, z_{s} | Shear center coordinate with respect to centroid of the cross section. Calculation of the Additional-advanced property may be restricted by technical module, takes more computer resources and is performed on press of "Additional" button | mm |
Torsion properties |
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I_{p} | Polar moment of inertia | mm^{4} |
I_{t} | Torsional constant. Calculation of the Additional-advanced property may be restricted by technical module, takes more computer resources and is performed on press of "Additional" button | mm^{4} |
GI_{p} | Torsional stiffness | N·mm^{2} |
I_{w} | Warping section modulus with respect to shear center. Calculation of the Additional-advanced property may be restricted by technical module, takes more computer resources and is performed on press of "Additional" button | mm^{6} |
By using the multi-material cross section, some section properties are reduced to the single (base) material, based on specific reduction formulas: see Bi-material reduction.